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Artificial Intelligence

artificial intelligence

ARITIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE – DATA


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Artificial Intelligence and analog computing

My great passion has always been machines, learning about new technologies and science.


Our professor became frustrated because I always complained after he portrayed old technologies that had been in existence for over a hundred years.


I wonder what he would say about Tiktok, Instagram, and the advanced state of Social Media today? Or about Cloud computing, to mention another modern day achievment.


Most other Professors were just like him. Old teachings, conservative, stubbornly autocratic was the way in which they passed what was then considered knowledge.


It was with most teachers the same. Interesting how in today’s world methods have changed


The power of the machine – the first in our school, a physical dimension that filled a whole room of 30 sq m. –


I am unsure if he will read this, I guess he is too advanced in age to do so, but if you do, Professor Hoerdler, greetings to you.


Welcome to Artifical Intelligence

I welcome you to this session on Artificial Intelligence.

I’ll be covering all the domains and the concepts involved under the umbrella of artificial intelligence.


Understanding the history of Artificial Intelligence


Understand the history of artificial intelligence and how it came into existence.

We’ll follow this by looking at why we’re talking about artificial intelligence now, why has it gotten so famous right now.


We’ll discuss the applications of artificial intelligence.

We also want to discuss the basics of AI where we’ll understand the different types of artificial intelligence.


Python and AI

We’ll follow this by understanding the different programming languages that can be used to study AI.


And we’ll understand why we’re gonna choose Python. Alright, I’ll introduce you to Python.

And then we’ll move on and discuss machine learning.


Here we’ll discuss the different types of machine learning.


Different algorithms

The different algorithms involved in machine learning, which include classification algorithms, regression algorithms, clustering, and association algorithms.



After that, we’ll discuss the limitations of machine learning and why deep learning is needed.


I’ll introduce you to the deep learning concept, what are neurons, perceptrons, multiple layer perceptrons, amongst others.


We’ll discuss the different types of neural networks, and we’ll also look at what exactly back propagation is.


And finally we’ll move onto the next module, which is natural language processing.


On the natural language processing, we’ll try to understand what is text mining, the difference between text mining in NLP, what are the different terminologies in NLP.


Greek mythology and Artificial Intelligence


Take a look at our first topic which is history of artificial intelligence.


The concept of artificial intelligence dates back to the classical ages


Under Greek mythology, the concept of machines and mechanical men were well thought of. An example of this is Talos.


TALOS

I don’t know how many of you have heard of this.

Talos was a giant animated bronze warrior who was programmed to guard the island of Crete. Now these are just ideas.


Nobody knows if this was actually implemented, but machine learning and AI were thought of long ago.


Let’s get back to the 19th century. 1950 was speculated to be one of the most important years for the introduction of artificial intelligence.


In 1950, Alan Turing published a paper in which he speculated about the possibility of creating machines that think.


He created what is known as the Turing test. This test is basically used to determine whether or not a computer can think intelligently like a human being.


He noted that thinking is difficult to define and devised his famous Turing test.


Deep Learning and Artificial Intelligence


Basically, if a machine can carry out a conversation that was indistinguishable from a conversation with a human being, it was reasonable to say that the machine is thinking.

It means that the machine will pass the Turing test.


Unfortunately, up to this date, we haven’t found a machine that has been fully cleared the Turing test.

The Turing test was actually the first serious quest in the philosophy of artificial intelligence.


Followed by this was the era of 1951. This was also known as the game AI.

In 1951, by using the Ferranti Mark 1 machine of the University of Manchester, a computer scientist known as Christopher Strachey wrote a checkers program.


ALEXA, SIRI, MIT LAB – Artificial Intelligence

And at the same time, a program was written for chess as well.

These programs were later improved and redone, but this was the first attempt at creating programs that could play chess or that would compete with humans in playing chess.


This is followed by the year 1956. Now, this is probably the most important year in the invention of AI.

Because in 1956, for the first time, the term artificial intelligence was coined.


The term artificial intelligence was coined by John McCarthy at the Dartmouth Conference in 1956.


Coming to the year 1959, the first AI laboratory was established.

This period marked the research era for AI. So the first AI lab where research was performed is the MIT lab, which is still running till date.


In 1960, the first robot was introduced to the General Motors assembly line. In 1961, the first chatbot was invented.

Now we have Siri, we have Alexa.


Who is Eliza ?

But in 1961, there was a chatbot known as Eliza, which was introduced.

This is followed by the famous IBM Deep Blue.

In 1997, the news broke downthat IBM’s Deep Blue beats the world champion, Garry Kasparov, in the game of chess.

This was kind of the first accomplishment of AI.


It was able to beat the world champion at chess.

So in 2005, when the DARPA Grand Challenge was held, a robotic car named Stanley, which was built by Stanford’s racing team, won the DARPA Grand Challenge.


Big accomplish of AI

In 2011, IBM’s question answering system, Watson, defeated the two greatest Jeopardy champions, Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings.

This was how AI evolved.


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